Marcus Aurelius – 161-180AD

Marcus-Aurelius-Bust

 

Marcus Aurelius

161 – 180 AD

Born 121 – died 180 AD, age 59


MARCUS ANNIUS VERUS was born in Rome in 121 A.D., the son of Annius Verus and Domitia Lucilla. Hadrian recognized the fine qualities of the youth and he was originally betrothed to the daughter of Aelius Caesar After the death of Aelius, he was adopt ed by his uncle, the Emperor Antoninus Pius, and took the name of MARCUS AELIUS AURELIUS VERUS. In 139, he was given the title of Caesar, and in 146 he married Faustina Junior, the daughter of Antoninus Pius. The tribunician power was conferred upon him in 147, and his succession to the throne on March 7th, 161 A.D., was smooth. He immediately admitted Lucius Verus (who was also adopted by Antoninus Pius at the same time as Aurelius) as his partner in the administration, and betrothed him to his daughter Lucilla. Aurelius’ reign was disturbed by many frontier wars, and the legions returning from the Parthian War in 166 A.D. brought with them a plague, which spread throughout the empire and left many districts almost depopulated. Antoninus P ius’ neglect of the Empire’s frontiers caused Aurelius to spend much of the latter part of his reign campaigning against the Marcomanni on the Danube frontier A revolt, inspired by Avidius Cassius in Syria, was ended by Cassius’ assassination in 175 A.D.

His training as a child in stoic philosophy (which had evolved from its basic “Virtue for Nature’s Sake” axiom to also encompass intolerance of “outside” religious thought) caused him to oppose the spread of Christianity because of the Christians’ refusal to participate in the worship of the Roman Gods. Aurelius believed Christianity undermined his administration in contrast to the views of his father, whose tolerance of all religions was well known in the Empire. It was under Aurelius’ administration that the Christians were brought to the Circus Maximus in Rome to be used as bait for wild beasts and targets for gladiators for the amusement of Rome’s citizens.

Aurelius’ thoughts on his life, responsibilities, and aspirations, during his campaigns were documented in his celebrated “Meditations.” He died on March 17th, 180 A.D., and was immediately deified. It has been written of Aurelius that “in the evening of Rome’s greatness her ruler fittingly personified the virtues that had been her glory.” He was a careful, generous and conscientious ruler and is best remembered for his devotion to stoicism. It is ironic that along with Nero, he will also be rem embered for his brutal persecution of Rome’s Christians. The death of Aurelius saw the end of Rome’s “happiest years” which had commenced with the death of Domitian in 96 A.D., through the reigns of Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian) Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius (the so-called good Emperors)-a span of 184 “golden” years.

Reliefs from the Triumphal Arch built by the Senate in 176 AD.

The surviving reliefs are in the Capitoline Museum. Portions of the Arch were also incorporated into the Arch of Constantine. The whereabout of Marcus’ Arch are not known.


Titles and Powers, AD 139-180

AD Tribunician Power Imperatorial Consulship Other Titles
139 COS.DES. CAESAR.
140 COS.
141
142
143
144 COS.DES.II.
145 COS.II.
146
147 TR.P. – TR.P.II.
148 TR.P.II. – III.
149 TR.P.III. – IIII.
150 TR.P.IIII. – V.
151 TR.P.V. – VI.
152 TR.P.VI. VII.
153 TR.P.VII. – VIII.
154 TR.P.VIII. – VIIII.
155 TR.P.VIIII. – X.
156 TR.P.X. – XI.
157 TR.P.XI. – XII.
158 TR.P.XII. – XIII.
159 TR.P.XIII. – XIIII.
160 TR.P.XIIII. – XV.
161 TR.P.XV. – XVI. IMP. COS.III AVGVSTVS. P.M.
162 TR.P.XVI. – XVII.
163 TR.P.XVII. – XVIII. IMP.II.
164 TR.P.XVIII. – XVIIII. ARMENIACVS.
165 TR.P.XVIIII. – XX. IMP.III.
166 TR.P.XX. – XXI. IMP.IIII. PARTH.MAX.MEDICVS. P.P.
167 TR.P.XXI. – XXII.
168 TR.P.XXII. – XXIII. IMP.V.
169 TR.P.XXIII. – XXIIII.
170 TR.P.XXIIII. – XXV.
171 TR.P.XXV. – XXVI. IMP.VI.
172 TR.P.XXVI. – XXVII.
173 TR.P.XXVII. – XXVIII.
174 TR.P.XXVIII. – XXVIIII. IMP.VII.
175 TR.P.XXVIIII. – XXX. IMP.VIII. GERM. SARM.
176 TR.P.XXX. – XXXI.
177 TR.P.XXXI. – XXXII. IMP.VIIII.
178 TR.P.XXXII. – XXXIII.
179 TR.P.XXXIII. – XXXIIII. IMP.X.
180 TR.P.XXXIIII.

Aurelius became TR.P.II. on December 10th, 147 AD. His tribunician power was subsequently renewed each year on that date.


Monetary System

Monetary reform under Marcus Aurelius took the form of a steady yet gradual improvement of the currency. The Silver denarius between 161-165 AD maintained a fineness of 77.5%. This gradually increased to 80% between 165 and 169 AD. However, a decline seems to have begun in 170 with the silver content dropping to 78% through 174 AD. During the period of 175-179 AD, the silver content rose only marginally to 78.5%.

Mints: Rome

139-161AD under Antoninus Pius

Obverse Legends:

AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG. PII F
AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG . PII F . COS.
AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG. PII FIL.
AVRELIVS CAES . ANTON. AVG. PII F.
AVRELIVS CAESAR ANTONINI AVG . PII FIL.

Portrait Styles

Bare-head right
Bare-head draped and/or cuirassed bust right

Obverse Legends:

M. ANTONINVS AVG . ARMENIACVS.
M . ANTONINVS AVG . GERM. SARM.
M . ANTONINVS AVG . TR . P. XXIII. (-XXIX).
M . AVREL . ANTONINVS AVG.
M . AVREL. ANTONINVS AVG . ARM . PARTH . MAX.
M . AVREL . ANTONINVS AVG . ARMENIACVS P. M.
IMP . M . ANTONINVS AVG.
IMP. M . AVREL. ANTONINVS AVG.
IMP.C,AES.M.AVREL.ANTONINVSAVG.P.M.

Portrait Styles

Laurate head right
Laurate draped and/or cuirassed bust right


DENOMINATIONS

AU Aureus (7.23 grms)
AU Quninarius
AR Denarius (3.36 grms)
AR Quinarius
AE Sesterius (23.9 grms)
AE Dupondius
AE As

415 thoughts on “Marcus Aurelius – 161-180AD”

  1. Pingback: 手錶手機色情
  2. Pingback: 色情
  3. Pingback: porno izle
  4. Pingback: fuck googlee
  5. Pingback: oruspu çocuğu
  6. Pingback: izmir eskort
  7. Pingback: bok
  8. Pingback: picler
  9. Pingback: 他媽的谷歌
  10. Pingback: 他媽的
  11. Pingback: generic for cialis
  12. Pingback: cialis 20
  13. Pingback: cost of cialis
  14. Pingback: Levitra vs viagra
  15. Pingback: albuterol inhaler
  16. Pingback: ed medication
  17. Pingback: impotence pills
  18. Pingback: canada pharmacy
  19. Pingback: cialis visa
  20. Pingback: Buy cialis
  21. Pingback: vardenafil
  22. Pingback: vardenafil 20 mg
  23. Pingback: levitra for sale
  24. Pingback: sildenafil online
  25. Pingback: real online casino
  26. Pingback: careprost review
  27. Pingback: short term loans
  28. Pingback: loans online
  29. Pingback: payday loans
  30. Pingback: cialis buy
  31. Pingback: free slots
  32. Pingback: daniele
  33. Pingback: 20 cialis
  34. Pingback: buy cialis
  35. Pingback: cialis generic
  36. Pingback: herbal viagra
  37. Pingback: viagra pill
  38. Pingback: viagra for sale
  39. Pingback: cheap viagra
  40. Pingback: viagra for men
  41. Pingback: cialis 5mg
  42. Pingback: buy viagra
  43. Pingback: Viagra 130mg cheap
  44. Pingback: buy Viagra 120 mg
  45. Pingback: cialis generic
  46. Pingback: Viagra 200mg nz
  47. Pingback: Cialis 40 mg uk
  48. Pingback: viagra
  49. Pingback: blog link
  50. Pingback: Cialis 20mg price
  51. Pingback: Cialis 10mg price
  52. Pingback: furosemide 40mg uk
  53. Pingback: buy generic viagra
  54. Pingback: actos 30 mg usa
  55. Pingback: viagra sale
  56. Pingback: arava 10 mg pills
  57. Pingback: strattera 10mg usa
  58. Pingback: arimidex 1 mg nz
  59. Pingback: buy cialis ireland
  60. Pingback: cialis daily cost
  61. Pingback: generic sildenafil
  62. Pingback: female viagra
  63. Pingback: ceftin online
  64. Pingback: celexa 20mg price
  65. Pingback: gambling casino
  66. Pingback: viagra samples
  67. Pingback: viagra hawaii
  68. Pingback: personal loans
  69. Pingback: genuine viagra uk
  70. Pingback: viagra 100mg cost
  71. Pingback: clozaril canada
  72. Pingback: cialis in canada
  73. Pingback: cost of combivent
  74. Pingback: coreg australia
  75. Pingback: Levitra vs viagra
  76. Pingback: cheap coumadin
  77. Pingback: las vegas viagra
  78. Pingback: cymbalta 40mg uk
  79. Pingback: ddavp cheap
  80. Pingback: depakote 125mg uk
  81. Pingback: Us pharmacy viagra
  82. Pingback: flomax otc
  83. Pingback: imdur pharmacy
  84. Pingback: imodium otc
  85. Pingback: visite site
  86. Pingback: imuran online
  87. Pingback: mestinon canada
  88. Pingback: cheap motrin
  89. Pingback: prevacid coupon
  90. Pingback: prilosec online
  91. Pingback: revatio nz
  92. Pingback: valtrex for sale
  93. Pingback: zanaflex 4mg usa
  94. Pingback: their website
  95. Pingback: zocor 10mg prices
  96. Pingback: zyprexa online
  97. Pingback: viagra online uk
  98. Pingback: cost of sildenafil
  99. Pingback: tadalafil for sale
  100. Pingback: aripiprazole otc
  101. Pingback: meclizine coupon
  102. Pingback: order leflunomide
  103. Pingback: donepezil 5 mg usa
  104. Pingback: anastrozole 1mg uk
  105. Pingback: irbesartan cost
  106. Pingback: dutasteride canada
  107. Pingback: buspirone otc
  108. Pingback: clindamycin coupon
  109. Pingback: warfarin 1mg cheap
  110. Pingback: divalproex prices
  111. Pingback: tolterodine cheap
  112. Pingback: fluconazole nz
  113. Pingback: bisacodyl tablet
  114. Pingback: ntjluiha
  115. Pingback: loperamide usa
  116. Pingback: cialis pastilla
  117. Pingback: named brand viagra
  118. Pingback: atorvastatin pills
  119. Pingback: azithromycin 1
  120. Pingback: ivermectin 12
  121. Pingback: doxycycline 100mg
  122. Pingback: clomid femara
  123. Pingback: diflucan itching
  124. Pingback: synthroid com
  125. Pingback: neurontin snort
  126. Pingback: plaquenil 200mg
  127. Pingback: top erection pills
  128. Pingback: 20 mg cost
  129. Pingback: valtrex 500 mg
  130. Pingback: how to treat ed
  131. Pingback: pills for ed
  132. Pingback: ivermectin otc
  133. Pingback: plaquenil 500
  134. Pingback: ed doctor
  135. Pingback: solutions for ed
  136. Pingback: viagra discount
  137. Pingback: cialis 20mg usa
  138. Pingback: splitting cialis
  139. Pingback: zithromax 500
  140. Pingback: plaquenil cost
  141. Pingback: buy ivermectin nz
  142. Pingback: buy viagra online
  143. Pingback: cheap cialis
  144. Pingback: cialis 24 hours
  145. Pingback: cialis 2.5 mg
  146. Pingback: order viagra men
  147. Pingback: viagra pill
  148. Pingback: ivermectin 400 mg
  149. Pingback: sildenafil 20 mg
  150. Pingback: prednisone 5443
  151. Pingback: viagra alternative
  152. Pingback: doxycycline 50 mg
  153. Pingback: viagra sale online
  154. Pingback: ivermectin usa
  155. Pingback: cialis 1
  156. Pingback: over night cialis
  157. Pingback: drugs online
  158. Pingback: z pack near me
  159. Pingback: viagra for sale

Comments are closed.